Road fuels desulphurisation
For many years CONCAWE has maintained a model of the European refining system in order to be able to evaluate the potential impact of major changes, such as more stringent product specifications or shifts in crude supply and/or product demand patterns. Although the original focus was on costs, the model has now been adapted to also estimate impacts on CO2 emissions, both from the refinery sites and globally, i.e. including the impact of changes in fuels’ carbon/hydrogen ratio on in-use emissions. Originally focused on EU-15 (plus Norway and Switzerland), the model has been extended to cover new member countries as well as near-future members (Bulgaria and Romania).