report no. 7/11
CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is a potential route to large scale reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from large power generation and manufacturing facilities. It does, however, raise a number of technological, economic and legal challenges. This report reviews the state of knowledge in the areas of transport and storage of CO2, to focus mainly on CO2 capture in oil refineries. Sources of refinery CO2 emissions, the capture technologies that can potentially be deployed in that environment and the particular issues facing refiners in the application of CCS are discussed from both a technological and an economic point of view. One important conclusion is that the volumes and unit locations for CO2 production in refineries are not conducive to CCS projects in individual refineries and will require alliances with other large CO2 producers, particularly the power industry, in order to be commercially justified.