Literature Review: Effects-Based Analysis for Soils, Risk Management, and Waste Disposal
Classification of wastes is based on different pieces of legislation including the Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC) (WFD), as well as EU Member State guidance, that can vary between Member States. Waste is assessed for different hazard properties (HP) and ultimately classified as either hazardous or non-hazardous, resulting in different disposal considerations, and associated costs.
The current calculation approach to waste classification is based on chemical characterisation, with the possibility of replacement by so-called effect-based tests being discussed here.
Based on an assessment of the currently available literature and the understanding of the base science, this study concludes that it is not appropriate to use effects based testing as a substitute for the calculation approach. Effects-based tests could have value if used to assess particular site or waste-specific issues on a case by case basis, but cannot be used for some HPs where only animal tests (which are not permitted under the WFD) would be suitable.