Joint European Well-to-Wheels study
The Well-to-Wheels (WTW) study carried out jointly by EUCAR, JRC/IES and CONCAWE was completed at the end of 2003. The study considered a wide range of primary energy sources, automotive fuels and powertrains. The energy and GHG balance was estimated for close to 500 combinations, thus creating an extensive database for these key elements of the alternative fuels debate.
Also included are considerations of the quantities of alternative fuels that could potentially be produced, as well as the associated costs considered from a macro-economic point of view and for Europe as a whole.