Concawe Review 28.1
The three articles present in this edition of the Concawe Review emanate from Concawe’s Low Carbon Pathways project. The first article is a literature review summarising different perspectives on e-fuels technologies, together with the respective advantages and disadvantages, costs, challenges and enablers. The second article is a literature review on batteries used in electric vehicles, reviewing different technologies and the sources and availability of metals, presenting price forecasts and outlining the challenges that need to be overcome. The third article investigates the feasibility, as well as the costs, for the European refining industry to produce high-octane gasoline.