A global and historical perspective on the exposure characteristics of traditional and new technology diesel exhaust
This report reviews the global and historical development of exhaust emissions regulations for diesel-fuelled heavy-duty vehicles, passenger cars, and related vehicles as well as the engine, aftertreatment, and fuel technologies that have enabled these vehicles to meet or exceed the prevailing regulations. The impact of these technologies on the physical and chemical characteristics of diesel exhaust emissions is reviewed in detail. In particular, distinctions are made between Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE) from older heavy-duty engines and New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) from newer engines (generally post- 2007) on the basis of their physical and chemical characteristics. This information is then put in context with the Monograph Review on engine exhaust that will be conducted by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in June, 2012. The technological advances in engines, aftertreatment systems, and diesel fuels over the past 30 years are also described in detail. The report is complemented by extensive references.