Role of e-fuels in the European transport system – Literature review
In December 2015, COP21 in Paris made an important step to address the risks posed by climate change and to keep the global temperature increase to “well below 2°C” and drive efforts to limit it even further to 1.5 degrees. To achieve these goals, the European Union (EU) is exploring different mid-century scenarios leading to an EU low-carbon economy by 2050. To support the EU low emissions strategy, Concawe is exploring a cross-sectorial Low Carbon Pathways (LPC) programme, identifying opportunities and challenges for different low carbon technologies to achieve a significant reduction of the CO2 emissions associated with both the manufacturing and use of refined products in Europe in the medium (2030) and longer-term (2050). As part of the LCP programme, this report is a literature review on e-fuels, which aims to build a better understanding of the e-fuel production technologies and implications in terms of efficiency, greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, technology readiness level, environmental impact, investment, costs and potential demand. The main recent state-of-the-art publications have been identified and compared in this literature review, covering detailed assessments, presentations, technology providers and position papers, helping to define a better picture of the potential role of these low-carbon fuels in Europe.