VOC emissions from loading gasoline onto sea-going tankers in EU-15: control technology and cost effectiveness
This report updates the earlier CONCAWE report 92/52. It provides revised estimates for the cost and cost-effectiveness of sea-going tanker gasoline loading VOC emission controls. These measures comprise both modifications to the ships to permit vapour collection and installation of VOC emission control systems at the loading terminals.About 45 Mt of gasoline are loaded at 60 marine terminals in the EU-15. It is estimated that the fleet of tankers comprises 1250 vessels. VOC emissions from these loading operations are estimated to be 12,575 t/a, equivalent to approximately0.13% of the total man-made VOC emissions in 2000.Total costs to control VOC emissions during gasoline loading of sea-going tankers are estimated at 575 MEUR. These costs comprise 282 MEUR to install vapour emission controls at the 60 terminals and 293 MEUR conversion costs for the tanker fleet.The overall cost-effectiveness of VOC emission controls would be in the range of4840 EUR/t emissions abated to over 30,000 EUR/t abated as the terminal throughput decreases. Marine gasoline loading VOC emission controls would not be justified on cost-effectiveness grounds even for the very largest throughput terminals.